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模型制作

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亚当的模型指导书 ④ 滤镜 | 原创翻译

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兵哥哥 发表于 2018-10-2 14:20:10 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式


谢谢大家前三期的捧场和支持!这次就不那么多废话了,直接上干货!以后我尽量保持每周一更的节奏,大家可以有时间消化亚当的心得和经验。也容我留点时间做做模型啊,好多模型都要烂尾啦!!


所有原文内容版权都归作者和出版社所有,任何人不得用于商业用途。翻译稿欢迎转载,但请先联系本人。多谢大家!


Filter



滤镜

使用滤镜已经成为了战车模型界的一种潮流。


滤镜是涂在模型表面一层薄薄的几乎透明的漆膜。通常他们的稀释比例需要达到1:8到1:12,也就是一份漆兑8-12份稀释剂。(译者注:我相信这里亚当所说的滤镜稀释比例仍然是以田宫水漆作为材料举例,国内大家通常用的可能是珐琅漆产品为主,因为方便擦拭)这个半透明的滤镜层可以用作很多目的,它可以改变底色的色调和感觉,可以巧妙的混合迷彩中各种颜色的色调。有时候模友们会把渍洗和滤镜混淆,渍洗也是在模型表面留下一层薄薄的涂层,但渍洗的作用却是为了在细节和接缝处创造阴影,凸显这些细节。有关渍洗我们将在下一章讨论。

Filters have become sort of a fad in the armourmodelling world.


A filter is a thin, almost transparentlayer of paint, applied over a surface. Most of the time they are diluted toabout 8 to 12 parts thinner and one part paint. This rather translucent layercan serve a number of purposes. Filters can be used to alter the tone andfeeling of a base coat, subtly blend the colors of a camouflage or adddifferent shades to a surface. Filters are sometimes confused with washes.Washes are also applied using layers of thinned paint but instead to createfake shadows around details and into seams helping to make these features moreprominent. I will discuss washes in detail during the next chapter.



还记得上一期我们演示的那辆虎式么?当时我用淡透明蓝色的滤镜液进行整车喷涂。现在我决定再调一个透明棕色,为一些高光位置和局部细节增加更丰富的色彩。

After the blue filter airbrushed back onpage 34 I decided to apply another brown coat of clear adding a little morecolour to this TIGER I practically over the lighter sand highlights anddetails.


还有上一期说的那辆LVT,除了在底色上呈现色调梯度差,我还用不同的滤镜来创造色调调节。调制不同颜色的透明清漆,在不同的细节和部件之间创造对比。(译者注:感觉不明觉厉的样子!!后面会有详细介绍哦。我个人非常喜欢这辆战车!)


下面我将给大家带来一些例子,呈现使用滤镜的不同目的或原因。比如在前面我们看到的那辆虎式坦克,在模型上喷涂一层透明蓝色的滤镜,可以使模型的色调看上去更加冷峻。相反,应用红色调的滤镜可以让沙漠主题的模型看上去更加的暖一些。如果你的JS-3上的绿色看上去偏暗,可以使用黄色的滤镜进行提亮,如果JS-3的底色太亮,那就用深绿色、蓝色、或者棕色调滤镜让色调变暗的同时却不会让它失去活力。您还可以在模型的不同表面上运用不同颜色的滤镜,从而创建一种微妙的对比度。滤镜的应用多种多样,不一而足。例如:哑光透明清漆其实也算是一种滤镜,或者用我们称之为“斑点法”的技法在模型表面增加密集斑点的方式,也是另一种滤镜形式。用油画颜料进行褪色的技法也算是一种类型的滤镜,这个技法会在后面的章节中进行演示。

Along with the tonal gradients of thebasecoat, this LVT has different types of filters helping to make up the ColourModulation. These filters are the different coloured clear varnishes and oilpaints, helping to create contrast amongst the different parts and details.


Some examples for the different reasons touse filters are the following. Applying a transparent blue layer over a replicawill give it a slightly colder looking appearance like the clear I airbrushedonto the Tiger I earlier in this book. Conversely a red filter will make adesert subject look warmer. If the green finish on your JS-3 looks rather dulla few filters of yellow will help to give more vibrancy to the tone. If thebasecoat on that same JS-3 is too light a few Dark green, blue or brown filterswill help to darken the tone a bit without subtracting too much from the vigourof the colour as demonstrated in the previous pages. You can also apply variouscoloured filters onto different surfaces of a model creating faint contrastbetween areas and parts. A matt varnish is also a type of filter. Applying finespecks of paint over a surface using a technique called Speckling is anothertype of filter. Fading with oil paints is another type of filter and will bedemonstrated in the upcoming chapters.  



市面上大部分的涂料种类都可以用来做滤镜,当然也有很多现成的产品可用。如今,很多模友可能会选择现成的滤镜液,用这些产品做滤镜的时候通常是用笔涂的方式,而且最好是在消光的表面上进行滤镜操作,我稍后会解释为什么。正如您已经看到的,田宫清漆和水漆的搭配也很适合作为一种快速滤镜。有时候甚至可以用纯清漆来增加各个部分之间的对比。

You can create filters using most types ofpaints. There are also a number of products on the market. Today, probably dueto a result of available products, filters are often applied using a paintbrush. When applied with a brush filters work best over a matt surface as Iwill explain. As you have already seen Tamiya clear varnishes are also greatfor quickly applying filters. You can even use varnishes for adding contrastbetween different parts as I will now discus.



在模型表面增加密级的小斑点也可视为一种滤镜表现方式。这种技术被称为Speckling(译者注:我取个名字叫“斑点法”),这种技术主要应用在车体表面上的标记,让贴纸看上去呈现一种在车体上粉笔书写的效果。

Applying fine specks of paint over asurface can also be considered as a filter. This technique is called Specklingand it was the primary method used in making the fabricator markings, which areactually white dry transfers, look as though they are made from dusty chalk.


AIRBRUSHING FILTERS



喷涂滤镜

当需要在大面积表面覆盖滤镜时,很难用笔涂的方式操作。这个时候就要靠喷涂混合清漆用作滤镜效果了。

Airbrushing varnishes and clear paints allowyou to apply filters evenly over a surface which can often be difficult to do usinga brush.


 △ Photo 1-3 图片1-3


在这个例子中,我们将在这个灰色的LVT的不同部分喷涂不同色调的滤镜,与之前说的色调调节一起作用,为这些部分之间创造额外的对比度。(译者注:这里用的就是田宫水漆透明色)

For this example we will airbrush different clear tones onto thevarious sections of this grey LVT to work with the Colour Modulation creatingadditional contrast amongst the different parts.

 △ Photo 4-7 图片4-7


我选择模型上的一些面板,喷涂一层薄薄的透明蓝色滤镜。完成后,你发现模型面板上色彩仿佛被“打破”了,有些模型制作者称这种技术为“镶板”。在做这一步的时候需要使用遮盖来保证相邻的区域不受影响。

I thinned some clear blue and airbrushed a few coats over somedifferent masked panels to break up the model. Some modellers call thistechnique “Paneling”. Masking tape and paper were used to keep any oversprayfree from the adjoining areas.  


 △ Photo 8-11 图片8-11


在这个示例中,为了更进一步在不同部分间增加对比度,我又选择了几块面板喷涂了紫色的滤镜。

For the sake of this example I took it abit further and airbrushed a violet filter over a few more sections addingfurther contrast amongst the different parts of the model.


 △ Photo 12-13 图片12-13


如前所示,这辆IV号坦克的侧裙甲是用喷涂透明清漆(译者注:在这里是指有色的透明漆)作滤镜效果的另一个例子。在各块裙甲之间创造色调差异。在这个例子中,我用透明黄喷涂在中间和后侧的裙甲上,让四个裙甲产生了额外的对比度。注意看,效果是非常柔和的,但即使在旧化效果之后仍然能够分辨出来。

As shown earlier, the side skirts of thisPanzer IV are another example of using airbrushed clear varnishes as filters tocreate tonal differences amongst parts. In this case clear yellow wasairbrushed onto the mid and rear side skirts creating additional contrastamongst these four large pieces. The effect is less obvious but still evidenton the weathered model.


 △ Photo 14-15 图片14-15


再来看图14中T-72车体顶部(炮塔后方)这个发动机舱盖部件,也是用透明色涂层为部件之间创建对比的。对比其他部分,它的亮度更加的明显,这也是滤镜的一种。我们再来想象一下,在一张照片中,远离镜头的部分对光的反射总是更少一点,也就是比我们肉眼看到会更多地呈现消光效果,所以在模型上的某些位置应用消光漆也是一种滤镜的一种类型。接下来我们要来看一看笔涂滤镜效果的例子了。

A few coats of clear are sometimes all you needto help create contrast amongst parts as in the case of the panel on the upperhull of this T-72. The resulting glossy appearance of this detail is a bit moreevident against the rest of the satin parts on the model. This is also a typeof filter. Like in a photograph, details that are further from the lens alwaysappear to be more matt in appearance. The matt coat applied over a model isalso another type of filter. Next we will look at some examples of applyingfilters using a paintbrush.


APPLYING FILTERS BY BRUSH



笔涂滤镜

 △ Photo 1-4 图片1-4


现在我们一起来看几个笔涂滤镜效果的例子吧。在第一例子中,我想在这个冬季虎式上刷一些非常柔和的深蓝色滤镜,让它的表面看起来再冷峻一些。我使用油画颜料和珐琅漆稀释剂调出深蓝色滤镜液。如果在光滑表面上做滤镜效果,切记一定要稀释的大一点,也就是说滤镜液中的油漆含量要少。在模型表面上涂滤镜之前,把笔刷在餐巾纸上过一下,擦掉多余的颜料,如果笔刷上的滤镜液过多,那就更多的像渍洗操作了。


用笔涂的方式制作滤镜效果比起喷涂看上去效果更佳微妙。根据你使用的颜料,这个操作可能会减少模型表面的光滑效果。有时候我们不得不薄刷个三四层滤镜液才能达到我们所需要的效果,每涂一层前切记一定要等上一层充分干燥,每涂一层,滤镜的颜色就会更加明显一些。(译者注:所以请根据你想要的效果来进行多层的薄涂,不要教条的一定要三,四层。因为是薄涂,效果肯定是一点点呈现出来的,颜色也会一层比一层明显,一旦达到你想要的效果了就可以了。可能两层,可能三层,没有标准答案。重要是你自己开心,自己满意。)如果你想在某个局部或细节上应用滤镜,那么笔涂的方式是最适合的,因为它更好控制。

Now we will look at some examples ofapplying filters using a brush. In the first example I wanted to brush a fewvery faint dark blue filters over the surface of this winter Tiger to give it acolder damper feeling. I mixed a dark blue filter using artist oils and anenamel thinner. You might want to add less paint to the filter when brushing itover a satin surface. After wiping the excess away on a dinner napkin I brushedit over the surfaces of the model. If you are going to apply a filter by brushwithout first whipping the excess paint away you will only end up with more ofa wash.

Filters applied using a paintbrush are abit more subtle. They may also reduce the satin appearance of the modeldepending on the paint that you use. When brushing filters, three to fourlayers are sometimes needed to obtain your desired result. Make sure you givepaints like oils ample time to dry between each layer. The colour of the filterwill become more evident as you build them up over each other. Applying filterswith a paint brush does give you more control over its distribution if you areonly looking to apply it onto specific areas and details.



 △ Photo 5-6 图片5-6


这辆E-50用的是消光表面。消光涂层有着非常精细的粗糙表面。这种表面能增加了光的漫反射,这也是为什么它看起来无光泽的原因(译者注:光学原理不复杂,大家简单了解一下便是。当然,不了解也没关系。^_^ 一步步跟着来呗)。如图5,一块金属上的锈迹通常是非常粗糙的,这也就是为什么看上去锈迹总是无光泽的。运用在模型上,正是因为了有这种非常精细的粗糙表面,滤镜液更容易在上面附着。当笔刷从这种消光表面刷过时,消光表面会自动吸收滤镜液,从而达到更好的滤镜效果。这辆E-50的哑光防锈红的底色就是个很好的例子。

This E-50 has a matt finish. A matt coat ofpaint has a very fine coarse surface. The rough surface reflects light in manydifferent directions. That is what makes a surface appear matt. Actual rustthat you see on a piece of metal has a very coarse surface. This is why rust isalways completely matt when it is dry. It is because of this very fine roughsurface that it is much easier to brush a filter evenly onto a matt surface.This fine rough surface will automatically absorb the filter spreading itequally as you brush it over the model. The matt primer red surface of thisE-50 will serve as a nice example.




 △ Photo 7-10 图片7-10


注意,切记在涂滤镜液之前一定要在餐巾纸上把多余的涂料擦掉。您可以在图片10中看到,E-50不同面板上应用的不用颜色滤镜有助于帮助你“打破”原先的单调的色彩结构。

Remember to wipe the excess paint away ontopiece of paper or napkin prior to brushing a filter. You can see in photo tenthat the different coloured filters applied to the various surfaces of thisE-50 helped to break up the different surfaces of the model.  


 △ Photo 11 图片11


照片11展示了在大面积表面上应用栗色滤镜效果来巧妙的统一迷彩的不同颜色,并且把最终色调转暖的效果。同样,在这个图片中您可以看到,左边(无滤镜)和右边(有滤镜)的对比,滤镜效果呈现的非常柔和。

Photo 11 shows an example of applying amaroon filter over a large surface to subtly blend a camouflage while adding awarmer hue to the overall finish. Again you can see in this example that afilter can be very faint as I brush it working from right to left.  


总结:滤镜是一种非常有用的技法。本书的其余部分还会展示其他几个有关滤镜和其他步骤结合效果的示例。在本章结束之前,我还想讨论另外一种不太常见的滤镜。在模型表面上散布一些微弱的半透明浑浊色调或纹理,也有助于进行微妙的色调调节。在接下来的例子中可以看到我们是怎么让白色的转印贴看起来更像是粉笔效果的。

Filters can be a very useful subtle technique.Further examples of filters will be used in conjunction with the variousfinishing steps discussed throughout the rest of this book. Before we end thischapter I would like to discus one more less common type of filter. Specklingfaint semi-transparent muddled tones and textures over a surface will also helpin this case to subtly unify colour modulation, while making white opaquedry-transfers look more like chalk.


SPECKLING FILTERS (CHALKMARKS)



斑点滤镜(粉笔效果)

你可能不知道,这个“斑点法”在我操作不同的旧化步骤中可发挥着重要的作用呢!


经过几年的操作下来,我现在越来越喜欢这个技法了。我决定给他起个名字就叫“Speckling”(译者注:我也不知道怎么准确翻译,就叫它“斑点法”吧。)这个章节只是来讨论这种帮助模友获得自然真实效果的技法的众多可能性。在本书的其余章节,您还将看到更多的有关何时或在什么位置使用“斑点法”的示例。

Speckling plays a major role throughout thedifferent weathering process that I apply to my work.


After a few years of relying more and moreon this technique I decided to give it the name that I refer to it as now. Ihave published articles only about speckling highlighting the numerouspossibilities of this technique for helping modellers to obtain naturalfinishes. You will see more examples of both when and where to use thespeckling technique throughout the rest of this book.





斑点法也可用作滤镜效果。在这个示例中,我们会应用斑点法和其他一些技法将这辆E-50上的白色转印贴纸制作成看上去像磨损的粉笔标记。在详细参考了实物照片之后,我决定用我自己的WILDER公司生产的产品,另外还使用一套含有精细标志的转印贴,以及其他各种德式标记。这些精细的标记很难被整齐的手工书写在模型上。在贴好转印贴之后,我使用了斑点法和其他一些步骤,赋予这些细小的白色转印贴一种类似褪色粉笔的消光外观。一起来看一下吧!

Depending on how it is applied specklingcan also be used as a filter. For this example we are going to apply somespeckling along with other techniques to make the white opaque dry transfers onthis E-50 look like worn powdery chalk marks. After studying reference photos Idecided to produce with my company WILDER and use a set of dry transfersconsisting of fine markings and other various German type fabricator notes.These fine markings would have been very difficult to neatly write or paint toscale by hand. After applying the dry transfers I ended up using the specklingtechnique along with a few other steps to give these numerous small whitetransfers a look that resembled matt faded chalk. Here’s how I did it.


 △ Photo 1 图片 1


在应用“斑点法”时,您可以使用所有类型的涂料。在这个示例中,我混合了油画颜料和天然土,调成和这辆E-50色调相匹配的颜色。加入红色的天然土是为了涂料变的更加浓稠,同时也让颜色更加接近氧化红色调。然后找一只硬毛笔或硬毛刷,我把我之前用的笔刷改造了一下,把刷头切掉一半,用它来进行后续的斑点处理。

You can use all types of paints whenapplying speckling effects. For this example I mixed a colour that matched thegeneral tone of the E-50 using oil paints and pigments. The red pigments helpto thicken the red oil paint while altering the colour to more of an oxidetone. You will also need to find a brush with stiff bristles. I modified thebrush that I used throughout this book for speckling by cutting the bristlesdown to about half the original size.


 △ Photo 3-5 图片3-5


在这个技法中,调漆是一个小小的难点。稀释剂的比例将决定我们制作的这些“斑点”的透明度。(译者注:这个还是需要大家在实践中自己掌握了。)同样,我们要在餐巾纸上擦掉多余的涂料之后,先在干净的漆面上做个练习,确保这些“斑点”呈现出来的效果是你想要的。(译者注:这里使用的手法亚当没有说,看图片就知道和我们通常上溅泥效果是一样的,就是手弹硬笔刷的方式。但这种方式要控制斑点的大小我实在不知道有什么技巧,需要高手指点。)第一层,我通常大一些,更淡一些的斑点组成。一旦测试满意了,我们就开始在模型上应用了。通常我们需要借助遮盖带来防止不需要的地方溅上斑点。示例中的这个E-50是相对做起来比较简单的,因为它的表面只有一种颜色。

Sometimes it is a bit difficult to regulatethe mix of mediums when using the speckling technique. Again, the amount ofthinner added will affect its opacity. After wiping the excess paint away on apaper towel always first practice on a clean surface to make sure that thespecks will be deposited to your liking. I wanted the first layer to consist oflarger more transparent spots. Once content with the appearance during testingI speckled it onto the model. Masking is usually needed to keep unwanted specsof paint from getting over the different parts of the model. Always have plentyof masking tape and paper nearby. This model was rather easy because most ofthe surfaces had the same primer red finish.


 △ Photo 6-9 图片6-9


做第二层的时候,我们就少放点稀释剂,这样透明度就降低了,效果更加明显一点。在应用“斑点法”的时候我们使用珐琅漆和天然土的好处是它们的干燥速度相对来说比较慢,如果不满意,我们可以用珐琅漆稀释剂做修改或擦掉。比如有些地方斑点上多了,或者有些地方不希望溅到斑点(如挡风玻璃)都可以用珐琅漆稀释剂擦掉它。接下来就是等待干燥了,由于使用了大量的油画颜料,所以我们要让模型放置两天以上让漆面彻底干燥(译者注:具体干燥时间根据模友当地气候条件,根据自己过往的经验判断吧)。

Less thinner was added in order to keep thesecond coat of speckling more opaque. The advantage of using oils and enamelswhen speckling is that they dry slowly allowing you to blend and wipe theeffect away using enamel thinner. These areas that you might want to clean forexample are where the speckling may have been applied too heavily or on partsthat you would prefer to not have this effect present such as windshields.Because of the amount of oil paints used, I needed to let the model sit for alittle over two days before I could continue.


 △ Photo 10-12 图片10-12


我决定采取更多的步骤来进一步强化粉笔效果。用细笔刷把白色丙烯粉彩(译者注:亚当这里用的是一个欧洲品牌的丙烯粉彩,我们可以用其他类似产品代替。)随机地,一小点一小点地涂在转印贴纸上来减少磨损效果,让褪色效果看上去更随机和自然。同时白色粉彩还让外观增加了一点点尘埃的观感,进一步强化了粉笔效果。

I decided to apply a few more steps tofurther enhance the chalk marks. Small areas of White Lifecolor acrylics wererandomly applied over the transfers using a fine brush to create less wornareas while giving a more random faded appearance to the markings. Whitepigments added a bit of a dusty look further emphasizing the appearance of chalk.


 △ Photo 13-14 图片13-14


你可以比较图片13和14,可以看到图片14中两层斑点是如何呈现这种半透明的视效的。另外还要注意,用这样的方式大量上斑点会降低之前通过渐变喷涂和滤镜创造出来的CM对比度(译者注:至于降低对比度是好是坏,并不能一概而论,还是要按照自己的喜好和需要来。取决于你希望在面漆上保留强对比还是要让这样的对比度尽量的再柔和一些)。

You can see in photo 14 how the two layersof speckling effects gave the dry transfers more of a worn semi-transparentchalky appearance when comparing it to photo 13. It is important to also notethat speckling applied heavily in this manner will reduce the contrast amongstparts achieved previously by the different gradients and filters used to helpcreate the subtle Colour Modulation.


 △ Photo 15 图片15


这张图片比较清晰的显示了操作“斑点法”的两个步骤。(第一步是半透明斑点,第二步是不透明斑点。其实就是稀释比例问题。)这两个半透明涂层更像是一种滤镜,让漆面看上去呈现出褪色和磨损效果。

This strip once more shows the two differenttransparent speckling steps used. These two semi-transparent coats work morelike filters making the transfers appear to be faded and worn.


 △ Photo 16 图片16


这个图片中的沙黄色豹F是另一个应用少量斑点呈现掉漆的例子。虽然手法类似,但却又不同于滤镜效果了,因为用的涂料非常的浅。(译者注:这里我的理解是只是淡淡的一些点呈现漆面的磨损,也就是掉漆,区域控制的也比较小,并不影响整体色调,因此不算滤镜效果。)我们稍后会讨论更多这样的例子。

The photo of this sand yellow Panther Fschmalturm shows another example of applying speckling lighter amounts of paintto enhance chipping effects. Although similar to what I just demonstrated aboveI would not consider this a filter due to the much lighter amounts of paintbeing applied. I will discuss some more examples like this later.


 △ Photo 16-18 图片16-18


在继续下一章之前,有关粉笔效果,还需要告诉你们一件事。其实用发胶掉漆技法同样可以在这辆斐迪南上获得粉笔磨损的外观。我们在后面会介绍到发胶掉漆技法。所以,您会发现其实有很多种方法来实现你想要达到的效果。因为这个费迪南车体上的这组编号数字是我手绘的,所以完全可以应用发酵掉漆法。而之前那辆E-50因为用的是转印贴,所以就需要用“斑点法”来获得相同的效果了。

I would like to point out one more thing aboutchalk marks prior to moving on. The worn appearance of the large chalk markingson the superstructure of this Ferdinand were obtained using a method referredto as the hairspray technique.  We will beusing the hairspray technique in a number of examples thoughtout the rest ofthis book. You will discover that there are usually different ways to getdesired results. The markings on this superstructure were painted by handmaking the hairspray technique possible. As a result of the dry-transfers usedon the E-50 I needed to resort to speckling in order to obtain the same finish.


本期完


/ Adam Wilder

/ facewest

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